TRT Research Studies

A subluxation model for reward deficiency syndrome behaviors: Kenneth Blum, Eric Braverman, Jay Holder, Joel Lubar, Vincent Monastra, David Miller, Judith Lubar, Thomas Chen, David Comings. Journal of Psychoactive drugs. Vol 32 Supplement, November 2000.
It is appropriate to first discuss research that suggests the spine may be an anatomical extension of the limbic system. The limbic system is the site where feelings are mediated. These feelings are expressed through the reward cascade model as first proposed by Blum and Kozlowski (1990). We now know many naturally occurring brain and spinal cord substances play a role in both emotions and pain reduction, leading to an increased sense of wellbeing. In this regard, Pert and Diensfrey (1988) and Lewis and colleagues (1981) suggested the limbic system should include not only the amygdala and hypothalamus, but also the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

Increasing retention rates among the chemically dependent in residential treatment: auriculotherapy and subluxation-based chiropractic care: Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 6, Supplement 1 - February, 2001, part 2, abstracts.
AURICULOTHERAPY: Because of the known calming effect of auriculotherapy (ear acupuncture) a randomized study of auriculotherapy versus a capsule placebo group was carried out in a residential setting among 66 residential patients... Patients who completed at least 10 days of auriculotherapy and did not receive intercurrent medications were more likely to complete the 30 day residential program than were patients in the comparison group.

CHIROPRACTIC: a randomized, placebo controlled, single blind study utilizing subluxation-based chiropractic care (Torque Release Technique) was implemented... Three groups were randomized: active treatment comprising daily adjustments to correct vertebral subluxations using the Integrator adjusting instrument; a placebo treatment utilizing the same instrument but set to deliver zero force; and, a usual care group... All of the Active group completed the 28-day program, while only 24 (75%) of the Placebo group and 19 (56%) of the Usual Care group completed 28 days.

Chiropractic earns international prestige. Study relates association between chiropractic care and state of wellbeing: Canadian Chiropractor, October 2001, Vol 6, No. 5.
Results of a major chiropractic research study have been published, which show the remarkable effectiveness of subluxation-based chiropractic adjustments in patients suffering from addictions. The study appeared in Molecular Psychiatry, published by Nature, and is rated second in psychiatry and tenth in neurosciences out of hundreds of leading peer-reviewed medical research journals throughout the world.

Vertebral Subluxation Correction in an infant using Torque Release Technique. A Case Study: Elizabeth Anderson-Peacock. Canadian Chiropractor. Feature.
This case is a report of outcome of utilizing TRT indicators of “dis-ease” and subluxation and a protocol for adjustments in an infant with multiple immune problems.

Successful pregnancy following diagnosis of infertility and miscarriage: A chiropractic case report: Leslie Bedell. JVSR, Dec 2, 2003.
This case describes the chiropractic care of a woman with a history of infertility and miscarriage... After 60 days of care, a normal ovulatory cycle occurred, and she became pregnant after her second normal cycle... The article discusses the impact of stress on a woman's nervous system, and the possible associated changes in reproductive health.

Torque Release Technique in the clinical management of infertility related to cultural or religious-based lifestyle: Asher Nadler. JVSR, Nov 16, 2003.
This article explores the application of chiropractic, specifically Torque Release Technique™ (TRT), improvements in general health with an emphasis on neuroendocrine tone, and uterine cyclic function in a pre-menopausal female adult... The outcome included a shift in uterine cycle function which allowed this woman to follow the guidelines of her culture and be available to become pregnant.

Female infertility and chiropractic wellness care: A case study on the autonomic nervous system response while under subluxation-based chiropractic care and subsequent fertility: Tammy M Kaminski. JVSR, Nov 2, 2003.
This case study describes a woman, previously diagnosed with a lazy (reproductive) system, who became pregnant after commencing subluxation-based chiropractic care... After receiving wellness chiropractic care for the detection and correction of vertebral subluxations, the practice member showed marked improvement in autonomic and motor system function as demonstrated on her sEMG and thermography scans. In addition, after having great difficulty conceiving, she became pregnant nine months after commencing chiropractic care.

Reduction of vertebral subluxation using Torque Release Technique with changes in fertility: Two case reports: Elizabeth Anderson-Peacock. JVSR, July 19, 2003.
This article offers a description of two women who presented with varying complaints to a family-based chiropractic practice. In each case one of the complaints was infertility... In both case histories, the women had been deemed medically infertile and artificial insemination was being considered... During the course of chiropractic care both women were able to conceive... Although chiropractic care is not a treatment for infertility, it is postulated that improvement of spinal neural integrity through specific chiropractic adjustments may have contributed to improved homeostasis and physiological adaptation thus allowing the body to express a greater level of health as an outcome. Various effects via the reduction of the vertebral subluxation complex are postulated.

Chiropractic Care of a Battered Woman: A Case Study. Leslie Bedell, D.C. JVSR: July 20, 2006, pp 1-6.
This case study documents the chiropractic care of a battered woman struggling with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). Chiropractic offers battered women a unique service, it is the only profession trained and licensed to detect and correct vertebral subluxations. The relationship between the stresses of abuse and vertebral subluxation, as well as the subsequent changes during chiropractic care, are described.

Quality of Life Improvements and Spontaneous Lifestyle Changes in a Patient Undergoing Subluxation-Centered Chiropractic Care: A Case Study. Yannick Pauli, D.C. JVSR: October 11, 2006, pg 1-15.
This case study is to report the improvement in quality of life experienced by a patient undergoing subluxation-centered chiropractic care... We discuss the various analyses employed to evaluate vertebral subluxations, including paraspinal surface electromyography and thermography. Adjustive care included a combination of Network Spinal Analysis, Torque Release Technique and diversified structural adjustments to correct vertebral subluxations over a six month period... This case study demonstrates that the correction of vertebral subluxations over an 11 month period was associated with significant improvements in the quality of life of the patient.

The Role of Chiropractic in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Study: Andrea B Ryan, D.C. JVSR: December 18, 2007, pp 1-6.
To demonstrate the importance of chiropractic care as an integral part of the healing process of a patient with a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)... A 55 year old female patient presented to the office with a history of two automobile accidents which had both caused a number of physical symptoms... Complicating the healing process was the onset of depression and suicide attempt after the death of her husband, six years after the second automobile accident... Torque Release Technique protocols were used to evaluate and adjust spinal subluxations as it provides a low force adjustment... Within one month of care, the patient noted a decrease in symptoms and an improvement in her quality of life. Periodic re-evaluations demonstrated an improvement in physical findings as well as improvement in the function of her autonomic and motor systems as documented by thermal and SEMG scanning.

Improvement in a 3½-year-old Autistic Child Following Chiropractic Intervention to Reduce Vertebral Subluxation: Case Study. Nick Hoffman, BS, DC Bio David Russell, BS, DC. JVSR: March 24, 2008, pp 1-4.
To describe, discuss and track the subjective and objective changes of a 3½ year old autistic girl following chiropractic adjustments over a 10 week period... A 3½ year old female child with reduced social interaction and language skills and learning difficulties presented for chiropractic care. The child had been diagnosed with autism 1 year earlier... The child received full spine adjustments where indicated to reduce vertebral subluxation, using the Torque Release Technique protocol and Integrator instrument. Strong verbal and physical apprehension to initial care was observed, however no signs of this were present after 5 visits, along with further improvements in social interactions, language skills and increased symmetry in surface EMG and thermal scanning over the 10 weeks of care... The subjective and objective improvements observed by both practitioner and parents following chiropractic care indicate a link between subluxation and autistic behavioral patterns.

Successful Care of a Young Female with ADD/ADHD & Vertebral Subluxation: A Case Study. Leslie Bedell DC, JVSR: June 23, 2008, pp 1-7.
This case is being presented to emphasize the important role that Chiropractors play in the treatment of children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder... A mother brought her seven year-old daughter in for evaluation. Her primary concerns were the attention and focusing problems she was having in school, hyperactive behavior, sleep disturbances and her aggressive, negative behaviour toward her sister... Over the course of her 90-day treatment schedule, improvements were noted on the daughter’s weekly behavioural assessments. The mother noticed an overall change in her attitude as well as specific tasks.

Surface EMG: Is it reliable, valid and clinically relevant. Nick Hodgson, B.App.Sc.(Chiropractic), Unpublished: Aoril, 2008, pp 1-18.
Surface Electromyography (aka. Surface EMG or SEMG) is not a new technology. It has been used as a research tool and a clinical tool for decades by a number of professions, including chiropractors. So what have we learnt about the reliability, validity and relevance of this clinical resource over the years? This paper summarises findings from a literature search of research papers relevant to the issues of reliability, validity and clinical applicability, and presents SEMG findings from the comparison of two different patient groups in a single private practice utilising an Insight Subluxation Station SEMG and Torque Release Technique Integrator Adjustments.

Published Articles

Attention deficit disorders (ADD): Biogenic Aspects: Chiropractic Pediatrics. Editorial. August 1994, Vol. 1, No. 2. (Pg 21 – 23).
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a widespread affliction that we are just beginning to understand. It affects between three million and four million children in the United States, and probably a larger number of adults. It is considered the most common pediatric disorder. It is a compulsive disorder, usually genetic in origin, that results from imbalances of neurotransmitters, the messengers that communicate between the neurons in the brain. It strikes in childhood, and continues into adulthood. Its effects can be eased by treatment and counseling.

New Technique Introduced - EEG Confirms Results: Jay Holder. ICAC Journal, May 1996.
One of the most exciting events during Life College's 20th anniversary Homecoming was the debut of the Torque Release Technique, billed as the first and newest adjustment technique for chiropractic's second century... After the patient was adjusted, a post EEG was run and examined. Hospers explained her findings: "All of the abnormal prefrontal spiking found earlier was gone and that the entire EEG was now essentially normal."

Torque Release Technique: A technique model for Chiropractic’s second century: Canadian Chiropractor. February 1998, Feature, Vol 3, No. 1.
Torque Release Technique (TRT), a chiropractic model and technique of health care, was founded and developed by Dr Jay M Holder and Dr Marvin Talsky. It embraces a vitalistic paradigm, specifically relating to tone, the premise on which D.D.Palmer originally founded chiropractic.

Letter From Professor Robert Duncan Regarding TRT Research Design
Under a contract with the Florida Chiropractic Society, I designed a study of the use of subluxation-based chiropractic care in the residential drug treatment setting, Dr. Jay Holder, Principal Investigator. The study was a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial with three arms: Usual Care; Placebo Chiropractic; and, Chiropractic. The chiropractic treatment was delivered through the use of a mechanical device which allowed for setting the energy delivered. The placebo treatment involved setting the device to deliver no energy.

Subluxation based chiropractic care in recovery: Kenneth Blum, Jay Holder. Handbook of Abusable Drugs. Amended edition.
The possibility that alternative care would constitute chiropractic procedures to effect relapse and recidivism rates is currently under study by Holder and colleagues of the Exodus Treatment Center whereby subluxation based chiropractic procedures are being evaluated.

Chiropractic: A subluxation model for addiction and compulsive disorders: Kenneth Blum, Jay Holder. Handbook of Abusable Drugs. Amended edition.
It is appropriate to discuss some research that appears to establish the vertebral subluxation complex as a primary issue in the multi-factorial expression of the addictions and compulsive disorders. Chiropractic has never considered the spine a separate issue from the rest of the nervous system.

Breakthrough Brain Research Links Chiropractic Treatment to Addictive Behaviors: Letter from the University Of Texas Houston Health Science Center School of Public Health Dept. of Behavioral Service.
A "brain reward cascade" of neurotransmitters, when operating properly, results in feelings of well-being. If an imbalance impedes the normal flow of the "cascade", the feelings of well-being are supplanted by anxiety, anger,... or by craving substances which alleviate the negative emotions. Disruption of the "brain reward cascade" results in Reward Deficiency Syndrome ("RDS").

Beating Addiction: Alternative Medicine Digest, Future Medicine Publishing, Issue 29 - May, 1999.
From Bondage to Freedom Holder maintains that any addicted person will have one or more vertebrae out of alignment. Dr. Jay M. Holder shows why combining chiropractic, auriculotherapy, amino acids, counseling and 12-step programs may be the groundbreaking answer to all addictions including alcohol, cocaine, heroin, nicotine, eating disorders, sex and gambling.

A tonal solution for subluxation patterns. Torque Release Technique analyses cranial-spinal-meningeal functional unit: Canadian Chiropractor. April 2004, Vol. 9, No. 2.
TRT practitioners liken the relationship between the spine and the central neurology to a guitar string. As the tension along the string is altered, the pitch of the note is changed. The tone of the system is responsible for the adaptive response. This is analogous to the spine developing torsional strains and applying unusual tension patterns to the dural attachments and ultimately the neural tissue itself.

Technique Review: TRT - A "Software Upgrade" to Subluxation Care: Dave Russell. New Zealand Chiropractic Association Magazine, April 2005.
Are you adjusting the right level, in the right direction with the right thrust and at the right time? Do you find yourself adjusting the same segments time and time again? Torque Release Technique offers a model of care to "upgrade" the analysis of the spinal system, and the delivery of the adjustment. Transform practice from stagnating to health advancing.

Time For a Chiropractic Technique Computer Upgrade: Nick Hodgson. Australian Chiropractor Magazine, April 2006.
The real benefit of TRT lies in its applicability to any practice style and method: You can integrate the assessment systems to improve your certainty and accuracy in determining where to adjust regardless of how you adjust. You can add the Integrator adjusting to provide a low-force dimension to your technique spread. Or you can evolve completely to the TRT tonal model which is so congruent with the trend towards wellness practice.

Health Insight: Reward Deficiency? The common thread connecting addictive and compulsive traits. Nick Hodgson. Sight Magazine.
Jack’s story is not as uncommon as we would like to think. His condition can actually be described in one diagnosis: Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). But there are many more faces to this one disorder. Research paper after research paper seems to be linking this same mind dysfunction with all of the impulsive, compulsive and addictive disorders.

Staying Clean and Sober: Chiropractic: Torque Release Technique: David Miller. Book excerpt.
Dr Jay Holder, Medical Director of Exodus Treatment Center in Miami and Miami Beach, utilizes and teaches the use of subluxation-based chiropractic for the treatment of addic­tion and, through interview, has furnished much of the infor­mation in this chapter. He considers the Torque Release Technique to be the most valuable tool in his treatment "tool­box," along with auriculotherapy. Torque Release Technique is the adjustment of the nervous system to heal abnormalities that interfere with the communication of all systems of the body. To understand how Torque Release Technique works, we need to discuss the functioning of the nervous system as a tonal model.

RDS - Towards A New Understanding of Addiction: Nick Hodgson. Wellbeing Magazine, Issue 106, Nov/Dec 2006.
Could RDS be the common psychological thread that links a myriad of compulsive and addictive behaviors? The primary human compulsion is the need for reward: Brain reward is our highest payment – more valuable than gold and dollars. The sum total of each individual’s habits and repetitive behaviors is the result of the perceived rewards that we receive or desire from the planet, the people around us and our own thoughts, actions and intakes... The problems begin when we have inherited a reward deficiency syndrome.

Dear Chiropractor: Help Me Kick The Habit: Katie Gilbert. Psychology Today Online, July 2006.
Beating addiction may take an extra nudge from the chiropractor... But what does the spine have to do with addiction? The connection may be explained by the presence, or absence, of brain chemicals that make us feel good. When the spinal cord and its nerves are in proper order, chemicals known as neurotransmitters are released in a specific sequence, like falling dominoes. The result: A state of wellbeing. However, subluxations or misalignments of the spine can cause pressure and tension on surrounding tissue, interrupting this feel-good sequence.

Adjustments Impact Addiction Medicine: New frontiers in treatment: Sony Canteenwala. Canadian Chiropractor. February 2008.
Much work has been done to explain the addicted brain. Today, researchers have discovered that, for most addiction patients, addiction is not a choice but a bodily demand, like eating or sleeping. However, when the brain is “hardwired” for the wrong things, the effects can become fatal. Researchers look at the Brain Reward Cascade, the many neurotransmitters that fire in the brain, setting up a domino effect with resultant feelings of well-being. In the addict, this reward cascade is interfered with, or not functioning correctly to begin with, causing the addict to manifest what is called Reward Deficiency Syndrome, or RDS… Subluxation-based chiropractic is suggested as a possible treatment option... The idea is that if someone is manifesting RDS, or an inability to manifest a state of well-being on their own, they may be high risk for addiction.

Chiropractic and the Brain: Nick Hodgson. Your Voice. October 2008.
The brain is sexy! Let me put this another way – Talk about the brain and how to make it work better, and people sit up and listen. Let me illustrate this with three examples... Some research supports this observation that chiropractic adjustments change brain function (1-3): Hang on a minute – don’t skim over that statement – CHIROPRACTIC ADJUSTMENTS CHANGE BRAIN FUNCTION. Do you own that statement yourself? Do you comprehend the implications to the community IF that statement is correct and consistent? Let me propose two shifts that may need to occur in our profession for this secret to get out to where it needs to be heard.

In The News

Torque Release goes dual track: WCA Journal, March 2006
"Since chiropractic is a science, philosophy and art, shouldn't all chiropractic techniques be under constant change and improvement and not stuck in time?" she commented. "The answer is a resounding yes, because as new understandings are realized from research; techniques must change to keep improving if chiropractic is a science."

Clinical Models of Vertebral Subluxation. Chris Kent, WCA Journal, April 1997
Tonal approaches tend to view the spine and nervous system as a functional unit. Tonal approaches emphasize the importance of functional outcomes, and acknowledge that clinical objectives may be achieved using a variety of adjusting methods. Examples of tonal approaches include Network Spinal Analysis and Torque-release Technique.

TV documentary on chiropractic and addictions to air in February: WCA Journal Feb 2004
The segment, titled "Wiped Out," and is part of the "Lifeline" series, which presents news of the latest medical and health related breakthroughs. The "Lifeline" series is a Discovery Channel original programming series and is featured on Discovery's website.

Addiction Certification Program begins 16th Year: WCA Journal April 2006
Thousands of chiropractors and other health care professionals have graduated... Thanks to the CAd program, DCs have become recognized as a primary intervention resource for addictions, the America's leading cause of death and crime. More than 50 million people are affected by the disease of addiction, not including the compulsive disorders such as ADHD.

Adjustments, strokes and errors in Medicine: Chris Kent, WCA Journal July 2000

Discovery airs documentary on chiropractic and addictions: WCA Journal June 2002
When the Discovery Channel contacted Holder, he was skeptical. "I asked why they wanted to do a program on chiropractic. Their response was that they were excited about chiropractic's role for something other than neck and low back pain. I certainly agreed and felt that although musculoskeletal conditions do well under chiropractic care, the last thing we needed was another study on neck and low back pain," said Holder. "It's time to move on, and support with sound scientific research, the true broad-based scope of chiropractic practice, which lies in subluxation care providing fulfillment of human potential, state of well-being and quality of life."

Studies explore link between chiropractic care and infertility: WCA Journal March 2004
According to the Centers for Disease Control, more than 6 million women in the United States are infertile, and over 9 million use some kind of infertility service... A series of research papers published in the Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research (JVSR -- www.jvsr.com) suggests that chiropractic adjustments, performed by chiropractors to address nerve interference caused by spinal distortions, could offer hope to many of these women... The 12 studies in the series found that chiropractic had positive results regardless of the woman's age, number of years infertile, previous medical intervention or health history including miscarriages, blocked fallopian tubes, amenorrhea, colitis, or trauma.

Research on DC role in Addiction Published: WCA Journal May 2001
According to Dr. Holder, Molecular Psychiatry is rated second in psychiatry and tenth in neurosciences out of hundreds of peer-reviewed medical research journals in the world... "This is the first time chiropractic research has been published in a journal of such international importance in the world scientific community," he told The Chiropractic Journal. Nature Publishing Group's flagship journal, Nature, is the world's top rated peer-reviewed scientific research journal, he added.

Chiropractic at Ground Zero: WCA Journal November 2001
All the workers had to walk towards our station when they took their mandatory breaks and at shift change. Using Torque Release Technique analysis, I adjusted guys wearing climbing harnesses, fireproof gear and even bullet-proof vests. A lot of them were sweaty, dirty and they were all exhausted. They were on 12-hour shifts and working their tails off. They needed someone to care for them and we were there to provide our service.